Shaun returns home from work and enters to find his children embroiled in world war 3. Marigold has transgressed the national border of Jennifer's room to retrieve her stolen jewels. Diplomatic relations were briefly attempted, but quickly devolved into a verbal barrage of demands punctuated by the artillery of insults. Both children look up to the voice of the United Nations thundering from on high, "Stop yelling at each other!" -- hereafter known as the shout heard round the world.

With his words, Shaun is communicating quite clearly: there is to be no yelling in the Lecter household. However, with his tone, he has communicated at least two additional maxims for the home: 1. Don't yell around dad. 2. Only dad is allowed to yell. The what may have been clear enough, but the how also affected what the children learned.

In the renewal of classical education, many have given attention to what should be taught or curriculum. The curriculum of a classical education is the liberal arts as these allow the student to perceive and embrace truth, bringing harmony to their own souls and to their community. As educators continue to discover this lost tradition, more thought is being directed towards the how of teaching or pedagogy. These two aspects, curriculum and pedagogy, must remain united if the educational endeavor will be successful.

James K.A. Smith, in his book, Desiring the Kingdom, contends that every pedagogy assumes an anthropology, or to restate it, how we teach indicates what we understand about human beings. If my main method of teaching is to overturn the bucket of informational feed into the open receptacles seated at their desks, I am acting as if human beings are essentially brains on sticks. The main goal of life is to get as much information as possible. I may communicate something similar if I treat education as uploading the right beliefs or worldview onto a student's blank hard drive. If they can regurgitate the right beliefs about the world, they are educated.

Rather than this top-heavy, Mega-Mind-esc conception of man, we ought instead to understand human beings as embodied souls. We most certainly have minds capable of receiving information, and we all carry different beliefs about the world, but we also live in the world on an almost precognitive basis. How many of our actions are carried out without any thought? Have you ever jumped into your jalopy, started the old lemon, and the next thing you know, the scene fades to black and you were pulling into your driveway? Think about your personal or family rituals that you just do -- brushing your teeth, sitting down together at dinner or scattering across the house, waking up early enough to lounge through your morning or jumping out of bed and into the car to barely make it on time, watching three hours of Netflix before bed, cleaning the house only when the government has become aware of a new radioactive threat -- Smith contends that these are all shaping you on a gut-level to orient you towards the world.

Whether you are a parent or a formal educator, this should cause you to give thought to your own habits or rituals (liturgies, as Smith calls them). What do they say about the kind of person you are or are becoming? When teaching literature, do you hand out detailed worksheets asking who, what, where, when and then give factually oriented quizzes on the reading? This is communicating a view of what literature is for. When engaged in historical study, do you approach the world like a history textbook, culling the much more interesting primary sources for "just the facts, ma'am"? In your home, what does the day look like? Is it the random, disoriented feeding of junkyard dogs happening upon their next meal as every man fends for himself? Or do you consciously gather together to start the day, no matter how behind you already are? Your habits and rituals are shaping you and your children/students. Consider even the orientation of students in the classroom. Are they all facing the front of the room, lined up in individual desks with a uniform, factory precision or are they gathered into clusters and pods, each a smaller closed off unit? More importantly, what does this say about the learning process?

If we believe that education is about cultivating wisdom and virtue, we must be attentive to how the practices we adopt are shaping us on the unconscious level. Smith talks about how one can describe what it's like to hold a cat by the tail, but then there is the "know-how" of actually doing it. We must recognize that we can talk about virtue-formation for hours, days, and years on end, but unless students are adopting habits and practices that orient them towards this end, they are just filling the shoebox with some neat trinkets. They can perfectly define and describe virtue, but they aren't actually becoming virtuous. Take a "practices-audit" and think about the habits you have adopted and how these are shaping you. If our practices do not line up with what we think we are teaching, we may find ourselves to be a Penelope, weaving by day, but unraveling by night.

Temperance goes by many names. Some of them include, self-control, restraint, patience, endurance, fasting, feasting, or settledness. Of the other moral virtues, temperance is most similar to courage. While the other virtues are directed towards somebody or something — faith, hope, love in God or wisdom towards the best things — temperance and courage are both directed to yourself. They strengthen your soul towards one of those other virtues by resisting the passions or emotions. They are the virtues that allow wisdom and justice to flourish.

When you are afraid of saying your lines during the play, or worried that you won’t get a good grade on your homework, you are experiencing the passion of fear, and courage is the virtue to resist that fear and press on joyfully. Temperance is like that, but instead of something outside you, it resists other passions that come from you. When you don’t have a bad attitude even though you are hungry, or you start playing a video game for five minutes and have to stop and go do your chores, you can do it, even though you might not want to. That’s temperance; It’s self-control. When you don’t say the first thing that comes to your mind, or if you do your schoolwork or obey your parents, even when you you feel tired and grumpy, that’s temperance.

We have desires that are good and natural. If we didn’t have the desire for food, some of us might die. If we didn’t have the desire for rest, or anger at sin, or to play with friends, to watch a movie, or to listen to good music, we would be more like rocks than like God. Temperance is the virtue that can put all of these desires in order to desire the best things first. It’s not simply getting rid of desires or wants. In that sense, you should not be selfless. Rocks are selfless. Trees are selfless. You are a self, and so you are not told to get rid of good desires, but order them. Can you put the best things first? You are told to love God with all your heart, soul, mind, strength. Everything is good if it is received with thanksgiving. God gives us richly all things to enjoy. Temperance puts God first and enjoys all of His gifts rightly.

Temperance also restrains evil or wicked desires. There are some things that we want to do that are evil and wrong. If we want to say bad words or twisted jokes because we like it when people laugh at them, we are twisting the gift of laughter and friends for evil. When we want to eat too much or make a big deal about eating too little, we are showing more attention to our bellies that we need to or should. If we get angry and lose control of ourselves and yell at our friends or family, this is not temperance, but it is also not temperate if we can never get angry and act against things that are sinful. We would be ruled by laziness instead of being self-controlled.

You can grow in temperance along with all the other virtues. If you love God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength, you trust Him and hope in Him completely, if you are wise and just and courageous, you will also be temperate. If you have one virtue perfectly, you will have them all. They are connected. Practice self-control and saying no. If you know you are being tempted to give in to a desire that is evil, or you feel yourself controlled by anger, or you are choosing a lesser things instead of a better one, practice saying no to that desire and do what is right. Keep practicing. But remember, temperance isn’t just doing without things, but it is doing without them for God’s sake. “Look at me! I haven’t had screen time for a whole year. Aren’t I so temperate?” No! Not if you didn’t do it for God’s sake.

Like the other virtues, temperance only comes from being crucified with Christ. Paul tells us to put to death what is earthly in us like anger, wrath, malice, slander, obscene talk, lying, and to put on the new self which is renewed after the image of the creator. When Jesus died, all those who trust in Him died with Him. They died spiritually to their old self and way of life. They don’t live for themselves and what they want any more, but now they are to live as slaves to God. Picture a dead body put in the ground. It’s no longer moving. It has not life or power. That is what happened to all of your old desires if you trust that Jesus saves you from sin. So why do you let the old, dead self boss you around or rule you? When Paul wants to give instructions to Christians about how they should live, this is how he explains it. After all of the gospel promises that have been made to believers in Romans 1-5, he reminds Christians they have been crucified with Christ and should live as slaves to righteousness (Romans 6).

If this world was all there was — if you live, die, and are laid in the ground — you would need to do everything you could to get as much as you could as fast as you could. But Jesus promises eternal and abundant life for everyone that hears His voice and follows Him. This is what temperance looks like. We don’t need to fight for the most toys or joys in life, but we can live for Jesus instead. Every wrong will be made right and more joy than we could imagine is promised for those who trust in Him.

After considering the best course of action and seeking the good for all individuals, courage steels the will to follow through. After all, a man who can devise the right course of action, but is to afraid to follow through is not wise. A man who knows that he must replace his neighbor’s damaged property, but is afraid to admit that he backed into their fence, is not just. Each of the virtues hangs on the others. The wise and just man is also courageous. Courage is simply the willingness to do or say what needs to be done or said. It is an ability to get back up after you’ve been knocked down.

In this life, you will get hit, and I don’t just mean physically. Because of the sin of our first father Adam, we live in a world filled with sin and its effects. You will suffer. Things like sickness, aches, and pains are a result Adam’s first sin. You will also suffer because of sin or stupidity, whether yours or someone else’s. People can lie about you and say things that aren’t true, and you have to suffer the consequences, even though you truly didn’t do it You can get hurt because you were rebellious or just being silly. You might get hit in the face with a dodgeball or even an iceball. It may have been an accident, or possibly on purpose. You may suffer because you are following Jesus and trying to be like Him, and Scripture promises you will suffer for being like Jesus. Do you still want to be like Him?

Courage can show up in a lot of different places, but it needs an opportunity. No one shows courage when he walks through a field of butterflies. But you will face situations that need toughness to keep going. You will have math problems, that even though you’ve spent an hour trying to solve it, you still can’t find the answer. You will be sitting in class and not understand something — you look around and no one else looks confused so you think you’re the only one (you’re not). You feel frustrated and its a sickening feeling that you don’t understand something you think you should. You are reading something that you have to describe the next day and you don’t understand it at all. Everyone else can do it but you. You may be asked a question and have no idea how to answer, and you feel terrible. The school play is coming up. Some of you will forget your lines and feel embarrassed and like you want to sink right through the stage and disappear. You might say something dumb. You might do something wrong and need to confess it. You get home at night and you think about how terrible the day was, and you don’t want to get out of bed the next morning. Your mom dies. Your spouse is sick. In any of these situations, what keeps you going? Courage. Toughness.

Courage is shown in its most extreme form by being willing to die for the good and just. Think of soldiers willing to lay down their lives for a just cause. They are courageous because even fear cannot keep them from what is good. Do you also see why justice is important? Dying for evil reasons is not courageous or virtuous. While soldiers and others who lay down their lives for the sake of justice are courageous, those who are willing to die for Jesus and the gospel are even more courageous. Soldiers die for what they see, but martyrs die for faith.

How do you become more courageous? Just like the other virtues, courage only comes from the cross of Jesus Christ. You cannot be willing to suffer for the truth or experience shame and move on until you have died to yourself and been raised to life with Christ. This means believing the gospel and all of its promises. We have sinned against a holy God, and we are far worse than we could possibly imagine. But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which He loved us, made us alive together with Christ. He has forgiven all of our sins so that we don’t carry its guilt, shame, or bondage anymore. We cannot lose anything of eternal value. When you realize this and believe God, you will be able to show courage in these different situations. If you try to save your life, you will lose it. But if you are willing to lose your life for the sake of the gospel, you will save it. This is what courage is, from the small things all the way to the big things.

Courage brings more courage, so look at these painful situations as an opportunity to practice. You are running the drill right now, but you are getting ready for the game. The stakes will get higher and the situations more difficult. Are you preparing? When you struggle with a math problem, do as much as you can do, but then next time, try to go a little further. Like those in running club, you start with shorter distances, and then work up to running longer and for more time. Courage brings more courage. If you lack the courage for the “big situations”, ask yourself, how can I show courage right now? What evil am I tolerating because I am afraid?

And when you feel like you have blown it and messed up, or you are hurt and don’t want to keep going, or don’t want to start another day tomorrow, remember this truth expressed by the Heidelberg catechism: “I am not my own, but I, with body and soul, belong to my faithful savior Jesus Christ who has fully satisfied for all my sins and delivered me from all the power of the devil, and so preserves me that not a hair can fall from my head without the will of my Father in heaven. Yes, and that all things must work together for my salvation. Wherefore, by His Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal life and makes me heartily willing and ready henceforth to live unto Him.”

This is the foundation for courage. You are not your own. You belong to Jesus. So go and fight in His power. Get up. Dust yourself off. Trust in Jesus.

When the Greek soldiers came back from the Trojan war, it seems like they spent the rest of their days telling stories and listening to songs about the courage of heroes in battle. When believers get to heaven, I think they will sing songs about this life and the one true hero of the story who showed courage to the point of death, Jesus, and how, in Him, they were able to show courage because of Him. Not one detail of your story is wasted. It is all for Him.

Imagine a man who is always able to turn every situation to his own advantage. He is a smooth talker who can convince others to loan him their car, not realizing that they will never see it again. When finally caught by the law, he is able to garner sympathy from the jury and escape without punishment. Nothing ever seems to stick to him, and everything goes his way. We might call such a man cunning, but he would not be wise. Wisdom seeks out what is genuinely good, not only for oneself, but also for others. The wise man must also be just.

Justice is the second of the cardinal virtues. Justice, put simply, is giving to each according to his due. Broadly considered, there are three main components to justice: the standard/law, situation, and motive. Notice how there is an inherent objectivity in this virtue. There is a standard that must be used to determine what someone is owed. You cannot go into excess with justice; that would actually be the virtue of love. Also, the situation must be taken into account, for it is not just to return a sword to a lunatic, even though it does belong to him. Finally, one cannot be accidentally just, for if you intended to cheat a shopkeeper, but gave him the correct amount by mistake, you could not be considered just.

There are three kinds of justice: individual, retributive, and distributive. Individual justice is probably the form of justice we most often think of. This is justice between individuals as individuals. It may be expressed towards God by giving Him what is due Him, namely, all praise, glory, and honor through prayers, songs, obedience, and the theological virtues. When directed towards God, justice is also known as piety. Piety was the premier Roman virtue, displayed powerfully by Aeneas as he flees from his burning city of Troy. He puts his father, who carries the household gods, on his back and takes his son by the hand, leading them out of the dying city and towards a new home. He forsakes all inward distractions as he fulfills his duty toward the gods and his descendants.

On a human level, individual justice may range from paying the proper amount at a store, returning stolen property, replacing damaged goods, and not committing any evil against another. But not only is it necessary to provide restitution in cases like this, but it is also necessary to do good toward out neighbor. As expressed in the second commandment, we are to love our neighbor as ourselves. This means not only refraining from evil works and words, but also to seek their positive good as an image bearer of God. This is justice because they are made in God’s image, and are endowed with natural rights, hence, there is just (and unjust) behavior towards them.

Justice also places requirements on the community towards individuals. This is known as distributive justice. The society, as a whole, ought not to trample or ignore the natural rights of an individual so that the rest of society may flourish. This is a perpetual danger that manifests itself variously in different regimes, but it occurs in democracy when the majority tramples on the natural rights of an individual. The right to one’s life, body, family, and property may not be sacrificed on the altar of national comfort. Governments and societies that steal from their citizens, deprive families of their children, or murder their own people (born or unborn) are not just, even if their motivation is noble.

The final kind of justice is retributive or legal justice. This is justice owed by an individual towards the community as a whole. Each citizen is obligated to seek the common good of his society, even at personal discomfort. Citizens are obligated to uphold the moral laws of their state, pay taxes towards the defense of their country and administration of legal justice, and participate in government to the degree that they are able.

Often, societies grow sick by focusing on a particular form of justice to the exclusion of the others. An emphasis on individual justice may lead one to ignore the communal nature of justice and obligations of a community towards individuals. This causes a blindness to societal sins because no particular individual can be blamed. Other societies may focus only on distributive justice and ignore the necessity of an individual to work towards the common good and uphold just laws. Justice will run in every direction within a healthy society.

Also critical to this definition of justice is the idea of “what is due.” There are natural rights which are owed to individuals simply because they are made in God’s image. Some would like to expand these natural rights to an ever expanding lists of personal desires, but speaking accurately would restrict the use of “rights” to those privileges which are due to every single human being at all times and in all places. A cell phone and the internet cannot be natural rights because they did not exist for most of recorded history. Electricity isn’t even a natural right, for there are those who live without it (and some by choice!); there is not necessarily injustice here.

Justice exists because God is just. God displays his justice as He patiently bears with sin until His Son should die on a Roman cross for the sins of the world. God upholds justice by showing that He will not and cannot ignore cosmic treason, but He also shows His loving patience by granting forgiveness to those who trust in Jesus. No sin goes unpunished, and God will not judge sins twice. Either a person's sins will be judged on the cross as Jesus bears the wrath and judgment of God, or they will be judged in the last day as rebels bear their own sins. Some people receive mercy, and some receive justice, but no one receives injustice.

God’s righteousness manifested through His Son provides the only foundation for justice. It can be tempting to condemn the innocent in this life for fear that otherwise, some of the guilty would go free and escape justice. It can be tempting to falsify evidence in order to make sure the guilty actually receive a conviction. Knowing that no sin will go unpunished can provide tremendous freedom from these pressures. No sin will escape the judgment of God. His justice never condemns the innocent and never clears the guilty. An understanding of God’s justice can provide patience and hope when it seems like this world’s justice is constantly miscarried.

Christians also have a foundation to speak about justice by looking to the cross. They recognize that they themselves are guilty and deserving of death, but God showed mercy to them. This ought to encourage compassion and eliminate hypocrisy. Truthfully, we all deserve the death penalty, but Christians have died in and with Christ. Now we proclaim the same message of forgiveness and justice to others.

In the cross, we also see that God does not overlook justice. This should prevent us from offering cheap escapes from earthly justice by not reporting crimes or avoiding civil penalties because “we forgave them.” Upholding justice involves God’s appointed rulers to carry out temporal judgment on crimes. When forgiveness is extended, the victim surrenders the claim to personal vengeance. They will not be judge, jury, and executioner. They surrender the right of vengeance to God who always judges rightly and never clears the guilty. But this does not mean that a crime is released from the need for punishment. Judges, police officers, guards, and civil magistrates have a duty from God to impose penalties on evil-doers (Rom. 13). It is unjust to refuse to punish crimes because they have been "forgiven."

Ultimately, a revival of justice by practicing the second commandment requires a return to the first commandment: “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all you mind, and with all your strength.” Natural rights only exist if there is a nature created by God. Natural laws require a law-giver. If rights are granted by a government or other human source, they may be taken away. If justice is mere societal convention, it can quickly shift with public opinion. True justice requires that there is a objective “oughtness" to the world and a standard that must be conformed to. True justice comes from on high.

Wisdom, Justice, Courage/Fortitude, Temperance - Moral virtues

After having considered the three theological virtues, we know turn to the next four moral virtues, or the cardinal virtues. They are called cardinal for all other virtues depend on them. Further, they are a united whole, for if a man has one virtue, he has them all, just as if we have one sin, we, in principle, possess them all (James 2:10). One cannot be truly wise who is not also just. One will not be courageous if he is not temperate. Pulling one thread of virtue unravels the entire garment.

When contemplating what it means to be virtuous, we must think about virtue in two senses. One sense is that perfect virtue displayed by Christ and to which all His followers are called. Believers are to imitate their Father and be as wise, just, courageous, and temperate as possible. Their lives are to be living sacrifices and pleasing to God (Rom. 12:1-2), something impossible for the unbeliever (Rom. 8:8). Their virtue is measured by God’s law, done for His glory, and empowered by His Spirit. When we talk about virtue in this way, it is a gift from God, and unbelievers cannot participate in it at all. Bad trees cannot produce good fruit. Stony hearts do not pump blood or flow with living water. Christian virtue evaluates measure, motive, and means beyond a mere external level.

But we also must consider virtue in a second sense for the simple fact that pharisees and stoics tend to make great neighbors. You can trust them to watch your house, take care of your children, strive for the common good, and to do countless other good things. When considered from this narrow, external perspective, they are virtuous. On the outside, the white-washed tomb looks good, but we remember that they are filled with dead bones. So to we must also remember that all of their good works are done in rebellion to God, and thus Augustine makes reference to the “splendid vices of the pagans.” In this external sense, some unbelievers are better or more virtuous than others, but all are condemned under the law and cannot stand before God.

What is wisdom?

Man is gifted with various faculties and abilities. He can reason, will, love, contemplate, and enjoy. When we consider what wisdom is, it will be a habitual use of these abilities in perfection. Man will reason to, and choose his greatest end, and then be able to navigate complex situations to reach this goal. Wisdom is the habit of discerning and choosing the best path towards a man’s supernatural end.

Scripture reveals to us this great end of man as glorifying God (Ps 85; Is 60:21; Rom 11:36; 1 Cor 6:20; 10:31; Rev 4:11) and enjoying Him forever (Ps 16:5-11; Ps 144:15; Is 12:12; Phil 4:4; Rev 21:3-4; Luke 2:10). Man was created to know, love, and enjoy God. The way man glorifies God is further revealed in the two great commandments: love God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength, and love your neighbor as yourself. Wisdom consists in discerning how to apply the universal commands to love God and love your neighbor in each particular situation.

There are three primary qualities to wisdom, memoria, docilitas, and solertia. Memory consists in a love of the truth — a conformity to reality. The mind apprehends truth and does not forget it. It will not intentionally falsify evidence in order to achieve to a desired end. It does not lose knowledge like a coriander used as a bucket. Memory doesn’t masquerade as a false humility that willingly “forgets” or obscures the truth that it knows. Truth is too important to be mentally redacted when circumstances are difficult.

Teachability is humility applied to knowledge and is the philosopher’s first confession. Socrates concluded he was the wisest because he was the only one who knew he didn’t know. In contrast to the sophists (wise ones), the philosophers termed themselves “lovers of wisdom” to confess that they did not have wisdom, but they desired it. The one who knows all things cannot be taught. Wisdom strives for knowledge and to take in new information. It thirsts after truth and allows itself to be taught. Wisdom seeks counsel and input from others.

Sagacity or clear-sightedness-under-pressure allows a man to choose the proper end quickly, even while under stress. His memory and powers of observation allow him quickly to take in the situation and apply the truth he knows in a clear way. This is the ultimate end of wisdom, to discern and choose the best bath to man’s end of knowing, loving, and enjoying God forever. Life is complex, and there isn’t a rule book or casuistry guide to all the decisions you will face. Wisdom apprehends the truth of things, observes the situation, seeks council, and then makes the best decision.

How can you grow in wisdom?

As we seek to grow in virtue, there are several immediate applications of this understanding of wisdom. First, since true moral virtue necessitates grace, we must be taught of God. There is a wisdom from above and a wisdom from below (Jam. 3:13-18). Philosophy that seeks to understand the world and proposes the natural ability of man to do what is right apart from God is vain (Col 2:4, 8; cf. Rom 1:18-21; Eph 2:1-3). To truly know reality, we must know God through revelation by His Spirit (1 Cor 2:14). Prudence is put in action especially through trials, and God tells us to ask for this sort of wisdom (Jam. 1:2-5).

Since wisdom consists in sure knowledge, we should seek to develop our memory. A man who must be constantly reminded of what he should already know cannot be considered wise (cf. Heb 5:11-14). One who seeks to be prudent will develop this habit of remembering, and will seek out knowledge in all of the various sciences. True philosophy is man’s method of understanding the world which God has made, and it is a vast and wonderful world. A wise man will grow in knowledge of math, natural science, history, ethics, literature, geography, music, astronomy, and theology. Each of these are sciences or bodies of knowledge that may be explored and enjoyed.

Prudence also seeks to listen to others. It does not rush off and speak before understanding. It is quick to hear and slow to speak. Wisdom is eager to test, discern, and measure in order to find and savor what is true, honorable, just, pure, lovely, admirable, excellent, and praiseworthy (Phil. 4:8). This is how the virtuous soul is nourished, by being fed on grace and truth. This is not a foolish “wisdom” that uncritically accepts and believes everything it hears, but diligently searches for gold. The wise man loves truth above the choicest jewels and eagerly pursues it (cf. Job 28). The imprudent man loses sight of his supernatural destiny and instead pursues earthly treasures (cf. Matt 6;19-24, 34).

Finally, the wise man is able to take action. Far from being an idle contemplation, wisdom is able to chart the safest course through a turbulent and rock-filled sea to arrive at a safe harbor. It does not grow unsettled or rush into judgment; It does not fall into a paralyzed indecision. I steadily observes and draws upon all its resources in order to love justice and pursue it. This is why the prudent man will also be just. One who claims to be wise, but uses his memory and reason to pursue evil is not prudent, but cunning or crafty.

The wise of this age are put to shame through the foolishness of the cross. The ones who embrace this foolishness of preaching are the wise. One who wishes to be wise will find himself crucified with Christ and die to the elemental patterns of the world — namely, a righteousness through works of the law. The truly wise will receive in rest in a righteousness that is by faith.

One day, during a PE class, the students were playing a basketball game to 21 points. After a short break, the two teams came back, switched sides, and started another game. In the first or second possession of the game, one of the blue players got the ball and started running towards the hoop. There was no one else in front of them and they had a a clear layup. Their entire team was yelling at them, cheering them on — wait! They were shouting, “WRONG WAY!”

Direction is important. You may be the most skilled basketball player in the world, but if you are aiming at the wrong basket, it will be for nothing. There are objectively good works, but if they are not done out of love, they are as a clanging cymbal or clashing gong. They are just noise, but they are not truly virtuous.

The previous two virtues we have considered are faith and hope, and now we come to what Paul describes as the greatest of the three theological virtues. Remember that these three virtues all come from God, are practiced through God’s Spirit, and are directed towards God. From Him, through Him, and to Him are all things. Who do you have faith in? Who do you hope in? God. Now, whom do you love?

There are many different ideas of love. We could talk about loving your dog, or pizza, or fishing, or your spouse, or your kids, or your country, and all of those would be different meanings of love, but let us clearly specify what kind of love we are discussing with the theological virtue of love. What is love? Love is obedience to the greatest commandment. In our catechism this year, we have been reminded of the greatest commandment and its connection to how we can glorify God. We glorify God when we love Him as the most supremely desirable object of our affection. If God is not the highest object of our love, we are saying something else is more worthy of our love than God, and we dishonor Him.

When we are talking about this virtue of love then, we don’t mean love of pizza, or love of your dog, or your family, although they are related. This virtue of love is directed towards God. It is for this reason that those who are not Christians cannot practice this virtue. It’s no use trying to practice more faith, or hope, or love if you have not been born of the Spirit.

Do unbelievers love their families? pets? favorite foods, movies, and books? Yes. Of course they do. But they cannot love them for God’s sake. And because their lesser loves don’t find their direction in the ultimate love for God, they are disordered, or going in the wrong direction. It is not enough just to love things, but we must love them for God’s sake.

Have you ever tried to shoot a bow with a bent arrow? The arrow is twisted and bent so that it no longer works exactly like it should. Is it still an arrow? Yes, but it’s twisted. It’s the same way with disordered loves. Love as a human capacity is a gift from God that we are allowed to express towards other beings. All human beings, as made in the image of God, can and do express love in countless ways towards others, but we also must recognize that humans are fallen creatures. We do not love as we ought. We fall short because we break the greatest commandment.

How can you practice this virtue of love? First of all, recognize the primary and main object of love - God. This is the greatest commandment: Love God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength. Extend all of your being towards loving God. Do you know Him? Do you love Him? You cannot love your neighbor fully or virtuously, unless you love him for God’s sake.

Second, love all of the good things that God has created and given to you, for His sake. This involves loving them with the right amount of love that they deserve. You are ordering your loves. Do you love pizza? Do you love your mom? Which one do you love more? Loving rightly let's you choose rightly. We will suffer the loss of one of these things to gain the other.

Third, remember what the Bible says about love. It is not in mere words, but in actions. What do your actions say about what you love? Do you say you love God, but disrespect those in authority over you? If you cannot obey them, how could you obey God? Do you say you love your friends, but you talk about them and make fun of them when they can’t hear you? Do you love the things that God loves?

Fourth, Let every lesser love and delight lead you to God. Delight in them fully, but in their place. Beautiful, true, and good things are training you for eternal happiness in God. Don’t waste them by being bored by splendor. Love them.

Finally, share your love with others. What we love, we love to share. We say, “Come look at this! Isn’t this awesome!” If God is your highest love and delight, share that with others. Whenever you see a new truth or something beautiful, share it with someone else.

Murphy's Law is simple. If anything can go wrong, it will. If your toddler can climb onto the table and drink the rest of your coffee making him a caffeinated terror for the next four hours, he will. If you can break your freshly sharpened pencil lead three times in a row, you will. If you can forget everything else you were going to say — where was I going with this?

Pessimists are firm believers in Murphy's Law, and they almost deserve it. Two more famous pessimists in literature are Eeyore and Puddleglum. When first introduced to Puddleglum, he remarks, "Puddleglum's my name. But it doesn't matter if you forget it." Eeyore's experience isn't much better. “‘I might have known,’ said Eeyore. ‘After all, one can’t complain. I have my friends. Somebody spoke to me only yesterday. And was it last week or the week before that Rabbit bumped into me and said ‘Bother!’. The Social Round. Always something going on.’” Both of these characters, as with all pessimists, look at any situation and expect it to get worse. They lack hope.

Instead, hope is a future expectation of good, but this isn't a vague or glib optimism. This hope is grounded in reality. 1 Peter 1 shows us the nature of hope. Believers are born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus (vs. 3), to an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, unfading, and being kept by God (vs 4). This hope rejoices (vs 6, 8), endures (vs 7), and will receive its expected end (vs 9).

Hope is the sister virtue to faith. While faith looks at an object and trusts that object in the present, hope looks to the future. Hope is the future eye of faith that expects the yet unseen fullness of joy. This hope is secured by the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, because the worst has already happened. The Son of God was beaten, scourged, and hung on a tree to slowly die of asphyxiation and blood-loss. He was left alone, back ripped to shreds, and then his cold body was placed in a cold tomb, and all his followers scattered.

But it was not possible that death should hold him, so on the third day God raised Him up to new life. His heart began to beat again, driving blood throughout His previously lifeless body. He walked out of the tomb on the first day of the week as a new creation, and promises the same to all who hope in him. After the pattern of his resurrection, we will be raised.

This is the comedy of the universe. The last enemy has been de-fanged and stripped of its power (1 Cor 15:54-55), and those who lived in fear of death their whole lives will no longer fear that devouring dragon (Heb 3:14-15). We see this pattern written in the script of the cosmos. Trees decay and lose their leaves in Fall to bud again in the Spring. We sleep each night to rise again in the morning. Bodies are sown in the ground as seeds that will burst out in resurrection life. The most feeble, foolish, sin-crushed soul who trusts in Jesus for that hope will be raised.

In the meantime, we wait. Life is pain. Everyone who lives will suffer in some way -- sickness, betrayal, abandonment, weakness, death. This is the lot of humanity. Is it worth it? There are two responses: curse God and die or trust Him. Hope reminds us that God has given us life and breath -- existence. He has poured out innumerable good gifts into our lives when we didn't even have to exist. More than that, He has given His own Son; what could He possibly be holding back (cf. Rom 8:32)? Hope reminds us that this often bitter existence is worth it, because we have God.

Hope means joy. Christian's don't get to act like Eeyore or Puddleglum. "Woe is me. My life is so awful." We have God! Temporary trials are not even worth comparing with joy that comes from knowing God -- from being known by God. This is why the apostles frequently remind Christians to rejoice in trials, because through them all, we have God. This is what it means to be more than conquerers. Even the most difficult, crippling trial becomes our servant to purify our everlasting joy in God.

Hope should lead to fearlessness. The worst thing imaginable for a mere, material existence is death, but Jesus has robbed even that final enemy of its power. As Peter reminds women, those who hope in God do not fear anything that is frightening (1 Pet 3:5-6). What will we fear? Sickness? Mockery? Pain? Death!? Peter has already told us, our inheritance cannot be touched by any of these things and they are God’s purifiers for our eternal good (1 Peter 1:3-12). This is true hope.

The counterpoint to Eeyore and Puddleglum is King Lune. “For this is what it means to be a king: to be first in every desperate attack and last in every desperate retreat, and when there’s hunger in the land (as must be now and then in bad years) to wear finer clothes and laugh louder over a scantier meal than any man in your land.” Who will laugh the loudest in the face of famine? Who refuse to be cynical and give in to nihilism? Hope will not put us to shame.

What is faith?

Imagine a Roman legion about to clash against a larger barbarian horde. They are outnumbered 3 to 1, but they have assurance that their greatest general is on the way with cavalry that will decimate the barbarian foot-soldiers. All the legion needs to do is hold on. If they flee from the battle, they will be branded as cowards, and one of their most important cities will be lost. What is faith in this situation? Faith is trusting the word of the general based on his character and letting that trust lead to action by staying in the fight. If one claimed, “I believe the general will come,” but ran away, would you take his word seriously? His actions would demonstrate that his faith was not genuine.

What is faith? Faith is trusting, relying, depending, or resting on some object. When you sit in a chair, you are exercising faith in that chair. Every time you speed down a road, you are trusting that the other drivers will stay on their side of the road. When you deposit money into a bank, you are depending on that bank to record the money to your account. You cannot absolutely know that the other party will come through on their promises, but neither is your faith blind. Based on past experiences and assumptions about employees, drivers, and chair construction, you feel confident in your behavior.

Often you will hear definitions of faith as “believing what you can’t see” or “believing something contrary to evidence.” It may be described as a “blind leap in the dark” or “wishful thinking.” Too easily these definitions can lead us to think that faith is something like climbing a ladder composed of mist — a vacuous nothingness of dreams and hopes. You can't live in this castle of clouds.

The Bible paints faith as a far more concrete virtue. In Hebrews 11, the author cites numerous examples of individuals who all acted in faith. But notice that none of them were blind. Noah, Abraham, and Moses all had a sure and firm knowledge of God’s promises and so acted upon their trust in His character. This is what the virtue of faith is. Faith is a knowledge of some fact, an assurance that it is true, and an embracing of that truth for yourself.

How much faith do you need? Jesus says that you may have faith as small as a mustard seed (Matt 17:20). This is because it is never the amount of faith that is effectual; It is the object of faith. The airplane will transport those who swagger aboard while barking on a Bluetooth earpiece and those who hold their head between their knees for the entire ride. Those who, though filled with doubt, still painted blood on their doorposts were saved just as surely as those who never wavered (Ex 12). The object of faith is everything. God is mighty. Faith simply receives His acts.

How to practice faith

As with all of the other spiritual virtues and every good thing, faith is a gift from God. If you lack faith, ask! Hear the assurance of God that He knows how to give good gifts to His children who ask for them (Matt 7:7-11). Jesus will not turn away one who humbly asks for greater faith (Mark 9:24). He is not a harsh taskmaster commanding the making of bricks without straw (Matt 12:20).

If faith requires a sure knowledge of God, feed this virtue by remembering and rehearsing the promises of God as found in Scripture. Refresh your mind by rereading the great sweeping narrative of God’s creation and salvation of mankind. Watch God’s faithfulness and providential care shine through each story and episode. Any where you scratch the surface, you will strike gold.

Virtue is never an isolated act. It requires a community in which to be displayed. Encourage and exhort those in your community to exercise greater faith by reminding them of God’s word and works. Like an overexcited collection of molecules in a 3rd grade science fair, stir one another up to love and good works (Heb 10:24-25).

Faith always leads to action. It is never impotent and lifeless. Far from being a mere verbal confession, real faith works (Jam 2:14-26). When we discuss the four cardinal virtues, this will be important to remember, for none of the cardinal virtues are pleasing to God unless they are from the seeds of faith, hope, and love (cf. Heb 11:6).